Plasma electrolytic nitrocarburizing (PEN/C) was applied to the surface of carbon steel under the boiling condition of saturated urea electrolyte. In addition to the general effect of the bath temperature, different applied voltages and processing times were also considered in this new process. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microhardness and pin-on-disc wear tests

The Effects of Processing Time on the Microstructure and Composition of Plasma Pack-Aluminized and -Oxidized Surface Layers on Low Carbon Steel.

Low carbon steel was plasma pack aluminized at 973 K (700 C) for 5, 10, and 15 minutes in vacuum of 15 mbar. A paste of aluminum was packed around the samples, and the process was carried out in glow discharge of argon gas in one step without further diffusion processes. The aluminized samples were

Characterization and tribological performance of oxide layers on a gamma based titanium aluminide

In this investigation, Ti–45Al–2Nb–2Mn–1B (at%) titanium aluminide was thermally oxidised at different tempe ratures of 700–950 ◦C and at different times. Most oxidation exposures resulted in the formation of a compound layer consisting of several oxide layers, a TiO2 layer as the outermost layer on top of a layer of Al2O3 particles, a mixed layer of

Effect of Pulsed Plasma Nitriding on Mechanical and Tribological Performance of Ck45 Steel

 We studied the mechanical properties and wear performance of AISI 1045 (Ck45) carbon steel under the influence of pulsed plasma nitriding. The treatments were performed at temperatures of 500 and 550 C in N2:H2 gas ratios of 1:3 and 3:1 and the working pressure of 10 mbar for 1 to 4 hours. Samples were examined

Tribological performance of plasma nitrided gamma based titanium aluminides

Ti–48Al–2Nb–2Mn (at.%) alloy was plasma nitrided to investigate the effect of this thermochemical surface modification on the tribological behavior of gamma based titanium aluminides. The effects of nitriding temperature, nitriding time and H2/N2 gas ratio were investigated. Characterization of the microstructure and phases formed within the nitrided surface layers was performed using optical and electron